Faex - Fumaric Acid
Beauty and Cosmetic Glossary - F
(TIP: LIP INK® PRODUCTS ARE ALL NATURAL)
face cream A cream used cosmetically (mostly by women) for softening and cleaning the skin
faex. See yeast.
Fagus sylvatica extract. See yeast.
Face Cosmetics. Something superficial that is used to cover a deficiency or defect in the face.
False Eyelashes. There are two types of false eyelashes: full lashes, which add density to the entire lash line, and individual lashes, which can be used to fill in sparse areas or dramatically open up the eye area. Full lashes are easier to apply and don't look as natural, but individual lashes require a steadier hand and a bit more practice.
Face Makeup. The face makeup helps to make the wearer more attractive. For most women that involves simulating the appearance of health and youth. The various forms of makeup include foundation and powder, used to colour the face, also for lightening and concealing flaws to produce an impression of health and youth; rouge(blush or blusher), used to colour the cheeks and emphasize the cheekbones; mascara used to enhance the eyelashes, eyeliner and eyeshadow, used to colour and emphasize the eyelids.
farnesol. An extract of plants that is used in cosmetics primarily for fragrance. A few animal studies and some in vitro research have investigated farnesol's antibacterial properties (Source: Chemotherapy, July 2002, pages 122-128), and it may also have some antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Bacteriology, September 1998, pages 4460-4465), but there is no research showing it to have benefit on skin.
farnesyl acetate. See farnesol.
fatty acid. Substances typically found in plant and animal lipids (fat). Fatty acids include compounds such as glycerides, sterols, and phospholipids. They are used in cosmetics as emollients, thickening agents, and, when mixed with glycerin, cleansing agents. Fatty acids are natural components of skin and are components of a complex mixture that makes up the outermost layer protecting the body against oxidative damage (Sources: Free Radical Research, April 2002, pages 471-477; and Journal of Lipid Research, May 2002, pages, 794-804). Fatty acids can help supplement the skin's intercellular matrix. See natural moisturizing factors.
fatty alcohols. Made from fatty acids; in cosmetics these are thickening agents and emollients. See fatty acid.
FD&C. A type of coloring agent. According to the FDA, when FD&C is followed by a color, the color is certified as safe for use in food, drugs, and cosmetics.
fennel extract. Derived from the fennel plant; it can be a skin irritant (Source: Allergy and Immunology, April 2002, pages 135-140).
fennel oil. A volatile, fragrant oil that can cause skin irritation and sensitivity. See fennel extract.
fennel seed extract. Can have antioxidant properties, but on skin it can be a skin irritant and photosensitizer (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
fenugreek. A spice plant; some research shows it to have antioxidant properties when taken orally. Whether it has similar properties when applied topically is unknown.
Ferula galbaniflua. See galbanum.
feverfew extract. Can be very irritating to the skin and can trigger allergic reactions (Source: Contact Dermatitis, October 2001, pages 197-204). When taken orally it has been shown to relieve migraines and have anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Within the body, stimulates growth of the nervous system and bone formation. See human growth factor.
fibronectin. A type of protein found in the skin's intercellular matrix similar to collagen and elastin. Fibronectin's deterioration from sun damage and other factors is an element in skin aging and wrinkling. As is true for all proteins, regardless of their origin, it is probably a good water-binding agent for skin. However, applying fibronectin topically on skin doesn't help reinforce or rebuild the fibronectin in your skin.
Filipendula rubra. See meadowsweet.
film-forming agent. A large group of ingredients that are typically found in hair-care products but are also widely used in skin-care products, particularly moisturizers. These range from PVP to acrylates, acrylamides, and copolymers. When applied they leave a pliable, cohesive, and continuous covering over the hair or skin. This film produces excellent water-binding properties and leaves a smooth feel on skin. Film-forming agents can be skin sensitizers for some individuals.
fir needle oil. Volatile, fragrant oil that can cause skin irritation and sensitivity.
fireweed. From the Epilobium angustifolium plant; also known as willow herb. See Epilobium angustifolium.
fish cartilage extract. May have water-binding properties, but there is no research showing this to have any benefit for skin.
flavonoid. See bioflavonoid.
flax. Plant source of linen and edible seeds. Seeds and seed oil have antioxidant properties (Source: Biofactors, 2000; volume 13, pages 179-185). Seeds are also a source of linolenic acid. See linolenic acid.
flaxseed oil. From seeds of the flax plant; a source of fatty acids. See flax.
floralozone. One of a number of synthetic fragrant components.
Foeniculum vulgare extract. See fennel seed extract.
folic acid. Part of the B-vitamin complex; when taken orally, it is considered a good antioxidant. That benefit has not been demonstrated when it is applied topically on skin.
Fomes officinalis. The scientific name for a fungus (mushroom) commonly called brown trunk rot. There is no research showing this to have benefit for skin.
foundation. Foundation is an important facet of makeup - the blank canvas on which the rest of your makeup is applied. It is the base for any makeup application - to hide facial imperfections such as scars, depressions and pigmented areas of skin.
foundation is the most individualized makeup you wear Make up Foundation is not merely about adding color to your skin but also as a protective covering from the drying sun, wind and air conditioning.
formaldehyde-releasing preservative. A common type of preservative found in cosmetics (Source: Contact Dermatitis, December 2000, pages 339-343). However, there is no higher level of skin reaction to formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than to other preservatives (Source: British Journal of Dermatology, March 1998, pages 467-476). In fact, there is a far greater risk to skin from a product without preservatives, owing to the contamination and unchecked growth of bacteria, fungus, and mold that can result. However, there is concern that when formaldehyde-releasing preservatives are present in a formulation with amines, such as triethanolamine (TEA), diethanolamine (DEA), or monoethanolamine (MEA), that nitrosamines can then be formed, because nitrosamines are carcinogenic substances that can potentially penetrate skin (Source: Fundamentals and Applied Toxicology, August 1993, pages 213-221). Whether or not that poses a health risk of any kind has not been established. See preservatives.
fragrance. One or a blend of either volatile and/or fragrant plant oils (or synthetically derived oils) that impart aroma and odor to products. These are often skin irritants (Sources: Dermatology, 2002, volume 205, number 1, pages 98-102; Contact Dermatitis, December 2001, pages 333-340; and Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, May 2001, pages 172-178). See volatile oil.
frangipani. See Plumeria alba flower extract.
Frangula alnus extract. Extract from the Alder Buckthorn or Dogweed tree. Used orally as a laxative. There is no research showing this extract to have any benefit for skin (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
frankincense extract. Fragrant component used in skin-care products; it can be a skin irritant. There is no research showing frankincense to have any benefit for skin (Sources: www.herbmed.com; and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
free-radical damage. It is now medically recognized that degenerative skin conditions, such as wrinkles and skin discolorations, are caused primarily by free-radical damage (Source: Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, May 1999, pages 453-461). The primary causes of free-radical damage are air and sunlight, but it can also be triggered by cigarette smoke, herbicides, pesticides, pollution, and solvents. Antioxidants are a way to reduce and potentially neutralize the rampage of free-radical damage (Sources: Journal of Clinical Pathology, March 2001, pages 176-186; and Drugs and Aging, 2001, volume 18, number 9, pages 685-716).
Free-radical damage takes place on an atomic level. Molecules are made of atoms, and a single atom is made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Electrons are always found in pairs. However, when oxygen molecules are involved in a chemical reaction, they can lose one of their electrons. This oxygen molecule that now has only one electron is called a free radical. With only one electron the oxygen molecule must quickly find another electron, and it does this by taking the electron from another molecule. When that molecule in turn loses one of its electrons, it too must seek out another, in a continuing reaction. Molecules attempting to repair themselves in this way trigger a cascading event called "free-radical damage." The action of free-radical damage takes place in a fraction of a second. Antioxidants are substances that prevent oxidative damage from being triggered. See antioxidant.
fructose. Often called fruit sugar; a type of sugar composed of glucose. It has water-binding properties for skin. See water-binding agent.
fruit acid. See sugarcane extract.
Fu ling. See Poria cocos extract.
Fucus serratus extract. See algae.
Fucus vesiculosus extract. See bladderwrack.
fuller's earth. Mineral substance that is similar to kaolin (a clay). Composed mainly of alumina, silica, iron oxides, lime, magnesia, and water, it is used as an absorbent and thickening agent in cosmetics.
Fumaria officinalis extract. May have antibacterial properties (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
fumaric acid. Naturally occurring acid that has been proven effective for systemic and topical treatment of severe psoriasis vulgaris (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, February 2001, pages 203-208); however, it can also cause serious skin irritation (Source: Dermatology, 1994, volume 188, number 2, pages 126-130). In small amounts it can be used as a pH adjuster in cosmetics.