Ranunculus Ficaria Extract - Rutin
Beauty and Cosmetic Glossary - R
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Ranunculus ficaria extract. May have antibacterial and antifungal properties and is used in the treatment of hemorrhoids. However, applied topically it can cause skin irritation and may also cause photodermatitis (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
rapeseed oil. Nonfragrant oil that has emollient and potential antioxidant properties for skin (Source: British Journal of Nutrition, May 2002, pages 489-499).
Ravensara oil. A plant oil. There is a small amount of research showing it to have antifungal properties, and when tested on insect larvae it showed antimutagenic properties (Sources: Mutation Research, January 2002, pages 6168; and Phytochemistry, September 1999, pages 265-269).
red algae. See algae.
red clover. Can have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology, September 2001, pages 465-470). It is sold as an herbal supplement for relief of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Red clover does contain high concentrations of four major isoflavones that have been shown to have estrogenic properties. However, in studies red clover was found to be no better than placebo for menopausal symptoms (Source: Harvard Women's Health Watch, December 2001, www.health.harvard.edu/medline/Women/W1201e.html; and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
red clover. Can have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology, September 2001, pages 465-470). It is sold as an herbal supplement for relief of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Red clover does contain high concentrations of four major isoflavones that have been shown to have estrogenic properties. However, in studies red clover was found to be no better than placebo for menopausal symptoms (Source: Harvard Women's Health Watch, December 2001, www.health.harvard.edu/medline/Women/W1201e.html
; and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com
red lipstick. Stick-shape piece of red substance for brightening the colour of the lips.
red raspberry extract. Fruit extract that has potent antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, June 5, 2002, pages 3495-3500) and antibacterial properties (Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology, May 2000, pages 3-12). It can also cause irritation due to its tannin content.
red sandalwood. Has a phytoestrogen component (Source: Phytochemistry, March 2000, pages 605-606), but it can also be a skin irritant (Source: Contact Dermatitis, January 1996, page 69). See plant estrogen.
reducing agent. Substances that have the ability to split or break down the disulfide bonds of hair. Therefore, they are typically used in hair-straightening or hair-waving products and in depilatories. The chemical reaction they generate has antioxidant properties, but they can also be strong skin irritants.
Rehmannia chinensis root extract. From the plant also known as Chinese foxglove; there is no research showing it to have benefit for skin.
Rehmannia glutinosa. Chinese herb known as Di huang that has no known benefit for skin.
rejuvenative moisturizer. A facial cream rich in vitamins and antioxidants that protect the skin from the aging environmental influences. A perfect nutritious solution to help rejuvenate tired, stressed skin, by replenishing the moisture loss and easing the appearance of aging. Renova. See Retin-A, and tretinoin.
rejuvenative toner. A refreshing toner designed to provide skin rejuvenative properties with antioxidants, and botanical extracts.
rimmel cosmetic. Rimmel is a cosmetic product allowing of surligner the eyes by colouring the lashes and giving them more apparent length.
This term is often used to speak about of mascara.
rimmel make up. Rimmel gives a finishing touch to your eye makeup and must cover the lashes from roots to the tips. Deposit the color on the rimmel wand by twirling it in the pack and then cover the upper lashes from their base to the tips in full strokes to make the lashes look thicker, longer, well defined and separated.
retinol. A vitamin A acid. The main ingredient in Retin-A and Renova. These products are used to treat fine wrinkles and acne. Retinol increases cellular turnover which evens out tone and texture and helps skin to function better. Retinol is better than other forms of vitamin A as the molecular structure is smaller.
resorcinol. Considered an effective topical disinfectant in concentrations of 1% to 3% (Source: www.fda.gov
). However, there is also research showing it to be overly irritating for skin (Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, July 1999, pages 14-23). As a result it is rarely used nowadays for treating blemishes.
respiratory enzyme. Type of enzyme that interacts with several other biological and physiological processes for the activation and use of oxygen in the body. There is no evidence that any respiratory enzyme can do anything topically for skin.
Retin-A. One of several prescription-only drugs (others include Renova, Tazorac, and Avita) that contain tretinoin (technically, all-trans retinoic acid), which is the acid form of vitamin A, as the active ingredient. In skin, tretinoin is the form of vitamin A that can actually affect cell production by binding to the tretinoin receptor sites on the cell. There is a great deal of research establishing that when skin has been damaged (often by exposure to sunlight) tretinoin is effective in improving cell production. Tretinoin is a valid method for addressing wrinkles and, overall, for improving cell production. Applying tretinoin doesn't produce miraculous results, but the positive outcome in terms of skin health is indisputable. However, it is highly possible that using tretinoin on the skin will cause irritation, which is a major drawback of this drug. See tretinoin.
retinol. Technical name for vitamin A. There is research demonstrating that retinol can have the same action on skin as tretinoin (a derivative of vitamin A and the active ingredient in Retin-A, Renova, Tazorac, and Avita). In skin, tretinoin is the form of vitamin A that can actually affect cell production by binding to the tretinoin receptor sites on the cell, and, therefore, retinol and retinyl palmitate must become tretinoin in the skin if they are to do the same thing. Theoretically, retinol can become tretinoin in the skin, but it is not a direct process. Retinol can be absorbed into the skin and if certain enzymes are present it could be converted to tretinoin. There is research, however, showing that retinol (and retinyl palmitate) can increase epidermal thickness and can indeed function in a manner similar to tretinoin (Sources: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 1998, volume 111, pages 478-484, and September 1997, pages 301-305; Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, November-December 2001, pages 363-372; and Experimental Dermatology, February 1998, pages 27-34).
Retinol is an unstable ingredient, and therefore its packaging is of vital concern. Any container that allows the product to be exposed to sunlight and air means that the retinol will not be stable for very long, if at all, after it is opened (Source: Journal of Cosmetic Science, January-February 2001, pages 77-78). See tretinoin.
retinyl palmitate. Form of vitamin A. It is a combination of retinol (pure vitamin A) and palmitic acid. There is research showing it to be effective as an antioxidant and skin-cell regulator (Source: European Journal of Medical Research, September 2001, pages 391-398; and Journal of Investigative Dermatology, September 1997, pages 301-305). See retinol.
rhatany. See Krameria triandra extract.
Rhus succedanea. See Japan wax.
riboflavin. See Japan wax.
riboflavin. See vitamin B2.
ribonucleic acid. See RNA.
rice bran oil. Emollient oil similar to other nonfragrant plant oils. There is no research showing this to have superior benefit for skin.
rice oil. Emollient similar to other nonfragrant plant oils. There is no research showing this to have superior benefit for skin.
rice starch. Absorbent substance sometimes used instead of talc. It can cause allergic reactions and, because it is a food derivative (as opposed to a mineral derivative like talc), it can support bacterial growth in pores.
ricinoleate. Glyceryl triester used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.
Ricinus communis. See castor oil.
RNA. Ribonucleic acid is a single strand of molecules, exactly copied from DNA in the cell nucleus, that is required for the body's production of protein. This single strand is a linear, ladder-like sequence of nucleotide bases (chemicals that form its structure) that corresponds precisely to the sequence of bases in the DNA strand (the core of the body's genetic makeup). RNA in a skin-care product is useless because it cannot affect a cell's genetic elements. The production of DNA and RNA is an extremely complex process that requires a multitude of proteins and enzymes to have its effect on the body's genetic material. It is also doubtful that you would ever want to put anything on your skin that could affect your genetic material, and particularly not via a cosmetic that has no safety or efficacy regulations.
Robinia pseudacacia extract. See black locust extract.
rockrose oil. See labdanum oil.
rosacea cleanser Different gentle skin cleansers are available for rosacea. There are several types of mild cleansers that you may use, if your skin is irritated or aggravated.
rosacea treatment. The major goals of rosacea treatment are to: Identify and avoid the factors that cause flushing for you and that flare your rosacea (exposure to sun, cold, wind, hot food, hot drinks, and alcohol ). Control the active symptoms and signs of rosacea. Achieve optimum maintenance of this condition and its complications.
Rosa canina. See rose hip oil.
Rosa centifolia. See rose hip oil.
Rosa damascena oil. A very fragrant pink rose, used as fragrance in cosmetics.
Rosa eglanteria. See rose hip oil.
Rosa gallica flower extract. Fragrant extract.
Rosa mosqueta. See rose hip oil.
Rosa roxburghii extract. Extract from the chestnut rose; can be a source of antioxidants for skin, and does not impart fragrance (Source: International Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Applied Molecular Biology, November 2001, pages 37-43).
Rosa rubiginosa. See rose hip oil.
rose flower. Highly fragrant substance that can be a skin irritant.
rose flower oil. Fragrant, volatile oil that can be a skin irritant and sensitizer. There is no research showing this to have any benefit for skin.
rose hip. Seed-containing part of a rose. See rose hip oil, and vitamin C.
rose hip oil. Good emollient oil that has antioxidant properties (Sources: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, March 2000, pages 825-828; and Journal of Nutrition, March 2002, pages 461-471).
rose of Jericho extract. Extract from an annual desert plant with the scientific name Anastatica hierochuntica. It has hygroscopic properties, meaning it can absorb moisture from the air. There is no research showing this extract to have benefit for skin.
rose oil. Fragrant, volatile oil that can be a skin irritant and sensitizer.
rosemary extract. Can have antioxidant benefit for skin (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, October 1999, pages 3954-3962), but its aromatic components can cause irritation, sensitizing, or toxic reactions on skin (Source: Chemical Research in Toxicology, November 2001, pages 1546-1551).
rosemary oil. See rosemary extract.
roseroot. See Sedum rosea root extract.
Rosmarinus officinalis extract. See rosemary extract.
royal jelly. Milky white, thick substance secreted by worker bees that has been shown to have some immune-modulating benefits (Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, January 1996, pages 31-38). The myriad other claims about royal jelly being able to prevent wrinkles and heal acne are all anecdotal, and have no research to substantiate them.
Rubus idaeus. See red raspberry.
Rubus laciniatus. See blackberry.
Rubus occidentalis. See black raspberry.
Rubus suavissimus extract. Derived from the Chinese blackberry. Most likely, as is true for most berries, this fruit extract has antioxidant properties. However, there is no research proving this to be the case.
Rubus ursinus x idaeus. See boysenberry.
Rubus ursinus. See marionberry.
Ruscus aculeatus. See butcher's broom extract.
rutin. Bioflavonoid that is extracted from various plants and used as an antioxidant and emollient (Sources: Cell Biology and Toxicology, 2000, volume 16, number 2, pages 91-98; and Life Sciences, January 14, 2000, pages 709-723). See bioflavonoid.